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Department of Oncology – Medical and Surgical

Conditions & Treatments

Breast

Treatments
Some treatment options are:

  • Chemotherapy: chemotherapy refers to the use of drugs whose main effect is either to kill or to slow the growth of rapidly multiplying cancer cells.
  • Radiation therapy:  Radiation therapy is a form of cancer treatment that uses high energy x-rays to kill cancer cells while minimizing damage to healthy cells. When used for breast cancer treatment, radiation is delivered to the affected breast and, in some cases, to the lymph nodes under the arm or at the collarbone.
  • Surgery: It is done to remove the cancerous tissue. Standard surgeries are Mastectomy (Removal of the whole breast), Quadrantectomy (Removal of one quarter of the breast), and Lumpectomy (Removal of a small part of the breast).
  • Hormone Replacement therapy: Hormone therapy (HT) is a treatment that is used to supplement the body with either estrogen alone or estrogen and progesterone in combination. When the ovaries no longer produce adequate amounts of these hormones (as in menopause), HT can be given to supplement the body with adequate levels of estrogen and progesterone. HT helps to replenish the estrogen, relieving some of the symptoms of menopause and helping to prevent osteoporosis.

Lung

Treatments
Below are the treatment options available for Lung Cancers:

  • Chemotherapy: Done to kill cancer cells.
  • Radiation therapy: Is used to destroy cancerous tissue. Radiation therapy involves the use of high energy X Rays that destroy cancer cells and shrink tumours.
  • Surgery: One of the oldest methods to treat cancer. When cancer is in stage I or II and has not metastasized, it is possible to completely cure a patient by surgically removing the tumour and the nearby lymph nodes.

Head

Treatments

  • Chemotherapy: This treatment involves the use of anti-cancer drugs to kill cancer cells throughout the body. It is more commonly used for advanced stage head and neck cancers.
  • Radiation therapy: This involves the use of high-energy X-rays to kill cancer cells. This may be done via a machine near the body or with radioactive materials placed into the body near the cancer cells.
  • Surgery: Surgeons may remove the tumor and a margin of surrounding healthy tissue. Lymph nodes in the neck may also removed if it is suspected that the cancer has spread.

Gastrointestinal

Treatments
Below are the treatment options available to treat Gastrointestinal Cancer

  • Radiation therapy: Is used to destroy cancerous tissue. Radiation therapy involves the use of high energy X Rays that destroy cancer cells and shrink tumours.
  • Surgery: Surgery, called gastrectomy, to remove all of the stomach (total gastrectomy) or part of the stomach, as well as some of the tissue surrounding the stomach. 
  • Chemotherapy: A drug treatment that uses chemicals to kill cancer cells. 
  • Targeted drugs: Targeted therapy uses drugs that attack specific abnormalities within cancer cells. 

Blood

  • Leukemia: It is a cancer of the blood cells, which are produced in the bone marrow — the spongy interior of the bones. Normally, blood cells are made in an orderly, controlled way. When leukemia develops, the bone marrow produces abnormal cells; therefore, the cells that are responsible for fighting infections and preventing bleeding are not made correctly.
  • Lymphoma: It is a group of cancers that affect the cells that play a role in the immune system, and primarily represents cells involved in the lymphatic system of the body. Cancer occurs when normal disease fighting cells called lymphocytes undergo a transformation in which they grow and multiply uncontrollably.
  • Multiple myeloma: It is a cancer that affects a type of white blood cell called a plasma cell. Plasma cells produce antibodies to help fight infection and disease. In multiple myeloma, cancerous plasma cells (myeloma cells) are found in the bone marrow, the spongy tissue inside bones that manufactures blood cells.

Treatments
Below are the treatment options available to treat Blood Cancer

  • Bone Marrow Transplantation: This is typically a procedure to replace damaged or destroyed bone marrow with healthy bone marrow stem cells
  • Biological therapy to kill cancers
  • Chemotherapy: Done to kill cancer cells

Cervical

Treatments
Below are the treatment options available to treat Cervical Cancer

  • Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP): This procedure employs electricity to remove abnormal tissue
  • Cryotherapy: The procedure involves freezing abnormal cells
  • Laser therapy: This therapy uses light to destroy cancerous tissue
  • Radical hysterectomy: It involves removal of the uterus and much of the surrounding tissues, including lymph nodes and the upper part of the vagina
  • Radiation therapy: Is used to destroy cancerous tissue. Radiation therapy involves the use of high energy X Rays that destroy cancer cells and shrink tumours
  • Chemotherapy: Done to kill cancer cells