Specialities  ⁄  Departments  ⁄  Nephrology  ⁄  Nephro-Conditions

Department of Nephrology and Kidney Transplant

Conditions & Treatments



Blood pressure is written as two numbers, such as 118/72. The first number is the Systolic Pressure. This is the pressure in the arteries when the heart beats and fills them with blood. The second number is the Diastolic Pressure. This is the pressure in the arteries when the heart rests between beats. The Normal Blood Pressure is 120/80 mmHg. Anything higher than this is considered high.

Apart from prescribed medicines to control hypertension, some lifestyle modifications mentioned below can help control it:

  • Check your own blood pressure at home as recommended.
  • Eat healthy foods that are low in salt and fat.
  • Achieve and maintain your ideal body weight.
  • Limit alcohol to no more than two drinks each day.
  • Be more physically active.
  • Quit smoking.
  • Work on controlling anger and managing stress.
  • Have regular blood pressure checks by doctor.

Acute kidney failure:

Acute kidney failure is when the kidneys suddenly stop working. Normally, the kidneys filter the blood and remove waste and excess salt and water.

Until your kidneys can work normally again, you might need treatments to help make sure your body has the right amount of fluid, salt, and nutrients. These treatments can include:

  • Medicines
  • Changes in your diet
  • Renal replacement therapy –It involves either:
    • Hemodialysis
    • Peritoneal dialysis

Chronic kidney disease:

In people with chronic kidney disease, the kidneys slowly lose the ability to filter the blood. In time, the kidneys can stop working completely. That is why it is so important to keep chronic kidney disease from getting worse.

People in the early stages of chronic kidney disease can take medicines to keep the disease from getting worse.

Renal Calculus disease:

Kidney stones are just what they sound like: small stones that form inside the kidneys. They form when salts and minerals that are normally in the urine build up and harden.


Each person’s treatment is a little different. The right treatment for you will depend on:

  • The size, type, and location of your stone
  • How much pain you have
  • How much you are vomiting

Nephrotic Syndrome:

Nephrotic syndrome refers to a group of symptoms and laboratory findings that may occur in people with certain kinds of kidney (renal) disease:

  • High levels of protein in urine
  • Low levels of protein in blood
  • Swelling of the face, legs, or ankles due to the abnormal collection of fluids in the tissues, usually accompanied by weight gain


  • Treat the underlying disease
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Lupus
  • Minimal change disease
  • Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis
  • Membranous nephropathy

Polycystic kidney disease:

When people have PKD, abnormal fluid-filled sacs called “cysts” grow in the kidneys. The cysts cause the kidneys to get bigger than normal. The cysts can also keep the kidneys from working normally.

Doctors treat PKD by treating the symptoms and problems the disease causes.

  • Treat high blood pressure with lifestyle changes, diet changes, and medicines
  • Treat kidney infections with antibiotic medicines
  • Treat pain with pain-relieving medicines

Glomerular disease:

In glomerular disease, the part of the kidney that filters the blood doesn’t work normally. As a result, substances that shouldn’t be in the urine, such as blood and protein, can get into the urine.
Treatment depends on your symptoms, what’s causing your glomerular disease, and how quickly it happened